Did You Know? – Perso-Arabic Loans in Kannada

In my research on more advanced words in Kannada, I discovered there is a significant inventory of Perso-Arabic words. These words are primarily used by Muslim Kannada speakers, who are primarily centered in Northern Karnataka, in cities such as in Mysore and Dharwad.

I was kind of surprised to learn that there was effectively a Kannada-based equivalent of Urdu, which is a variety of the Hindi-Urdu continuum of languages that borrows heavily from Arabic and Farsi. Kannada’s “Urdu” has no formal name, as the minority of Muslims who speak Kannada are unlikely to use their particular variety of Kannada in public spaces. Most Muslims in Dharwar and Mysore speak Urdu as their first language, picking up Kannada as a second language. Despite this, Kannada has developed a strategy to write Perso-Arabic words in the Kannada script. Only two such letters are currently accepted in standard orthography: ಕ಼ (qa) and ಫ಼ (fa).

When I write in Kannada, I use the two dots to mark Perso-Arabic sounds that are not a part of the standard system. This means ಜ with two dots underneath would be pronounced “za” and ಖ with two dots would be “ḥa”. Interestingly, there is actually a protocol of how specific Nastaliq letters are converted into Kannada, and then pronounced in Muslim Kannada and Common (or Standard) Kannada:

Nastaliq [IPA] -> Muslim Kannada [IPA] (two dots) -> Common Kannada [IPA] (no dots)

ف [f] -> ಫ಼ [f] -> ಪ/ಫ [p/pʰ]

ص [ṣ] -> ಷ [ṣ] -> ಷ [ʂ]

ق [q] -> ಕ಼ [q] -> ಕ [k]

ز [z] -> ಜ [z] -> ಜ [j]

ث [θ] -> ಥ [θ] -> ಥ [tʰ]

و [w] -> ವ [w] -> ವ [v]

خ [χ] -> ಖ [χ] -> ಖ [kʰ]

غ [ɣ] -> ಘ [ɣ] -> ಘ [gʰ]

ذ [ð] -> ಧ [ð] -> ಧ [dʰ]

آ [ɒ] -> ಔ [ɒ] -> ಔ [au]

ه [h] -> ಃ [h] -> ಃ [ø]

To give an example, let’s take the following sentence: “I write the information with a pen.”

Muslim Kannada: ನಾನು ಈ ಇಜಾಫ಼ೆಯನ್ನ ಕ಼ಲಮುವಿನ್ದ ಬರೆಯುತ್ತೇನೆ. – Nānu ī ijāfeyanna qalamuvinda bareyuttēne.

Common Kannada: ನಾನು ಈ ಮಾಹಿತಿಯನ್ನ ಲೇಖನಿಯಿಂದ ಬರೆಯುತ್ತೇನೆ. – Nānu ī māhitiyanna lēkhaniyinda bareyuttēne.

Common Kannada (pronouncing Muslim Kannada): ನಾನು ಈ ಇಜಾಫೆಯನ್ನ ಕಲಮುವಿಂದ ಬರೆಯುತ್ತೇನೆ. – Nānu ī ijāpheyanna kalamuvinda bareyuttēne.

As you might be able to tell, the words for “information” and “pen” are very different, and come from different sources. It is also very clear that a Common Kannada reading of the Muslim Kannada sentence will sound stilted (though it assumes that the speaker is operating strictly within the sound inventory of Common Kannada). Not to mention that Spoken Kannada would sound completely different, no matter who’s talking.

I hope you found this article interesting, and I encourage you follow this blog and share it with others.

A Duolingo Course in the Works

Sorry for not having posted in so long! I’ve been very busy with studying and schoolwork in general, so I haven’t been the blog as much as I should. As I mentioned in a previous post, I thought it would be a great idea to create a Duolingo Course for minority languages. As it happens, for the past two months, I’ve been writing a Kannada Duolingo course curriculum, and I recently finished the first draft of it. Hopefully, the beta will be up sometime this year, assuming we can get clearance to actually start the course.

For those of you who do not know, Kannada is a South Indian Dravidian language, related to Telugu, Malayalam, and Tamil. It is spoken in the state of Karnataka, India as an official language alongside Hindi and English. The primary focus of this course is not for Indians living in India, but rather expatriate families living abroad. When I was growing up, there were very few opportunities to learn my mother tongue aside from my parents. Many parents wish to impart their mother tongue to their children that grow up in the United States, and try to send them to classes that will help them learn. However, sometimes, the only classes available are non-secular (as was the case in my area), to which some Indian parents would rather not send their children. My effort to create a Kannada Duolingo course is to provide a secular alternative to provide Kannada language education to Kannadiga Americans as well as other Kannadigas born outside of India.

I can’t exactly reveal all the details, but I would greatly appreciate it if you can share this post so that it reaches a lot of people, including interested contributors to the course! If you want to contribute to the Kannada Duolingo course, apply to be a moderator at https://incubator.duolingo.com/, by clicking “Contribute to a Course”. This way, we can speed along this project. It is unfortunate that the staff of Duolingo have actually stated: “the reason [they] don’t teach a lot of Asian languages is we are now sticking to languages that don’t require explaining a whole new alphabet”, said Gina Gotthilf. Also, “The choice of languages being added to the incubator depends on a lot of factors including Duolingo’s internal knowledge of them”according to the Duolingo wiki. I can assume that Kannada will be more easily done, since Hindi is already in the incubator, and they are teaching the alphabet. I highly encourage the Kannada Kootas of the United States to come together and increase demand for the creation of a course for our mother tongue. I’m currently in New York City, but my home is in the Bay Area of California, so if any of the Kootas are interested in contacting me, I’ll be in one of those two areas. To contact me, you can use the “Contact Me” tab at the top of the page.

I will be trying to write more posts soon, so please keep reading! Don’t forget to share this post wherever you can!