Conlanging as a Tool for Language Revival?

Hello everyone! It’s been a very long time, and I’m glad to finally be writing an article! I’ve been reading, seeing, and doing a lot recently, what with papers and student events. But, I have something pretty interesting this time around.

As you may remember from a few posts back, I’ve flip-flopped on my opinions about conlangs, or constructed languages. I originally felt that learning constructed languages was a waste of time. I felt that it detracted from time that could be spent on learning natural languages, especially ones in need of documentation and study. However, after working on a research project on Sankethi for the past few months, I’ve done some rethinking.

I’m currently in a Facebook group for discussion of constructed languages, and many of the members have an in-depth knowledge of linguistics. They’re very well-versed in how languages have changed over time, how change occurs, among other things. Their ability to generate usable paradigms for constructed languages, and build an organic structure from scratch is just amazing. I recently read up on efforts to reconstruct languages like Akkadian, the language of the Epic of Gilgamesh, and Proto-Indo-European, the postulated shared ancestor of many European and South Asian languages. There is currently a recording of the Epic of Gilgamesh in reconstructed Akkadian that you can hear online. The reconstruction of Proto-Indo-European has been in the works since the 19th century.

All of this has me thinking about how many minority languages like Sankethi have a fairly limited technical or literary lexicon. I once thought, “Oh, what if I wrote something in Sankethi and imported Tibetan, Chinese, or Korean words for fun? How would that sound?” It made me think that conlanging could potentially be a form  Of course, there are complications in this, such as ethnic/national tensions. A command of linguistic knowledge could be useful for constructing useful words to build the lexicon of languages without a developed written form. Or one could better introduce and naturalize words into a language.

These are just thoughts, and not a serious investigation into the actual possibility, since I don’t know enough. If you have thoughts on this, feel free to leave comments!

What Bollywood Films Say About Hindi for Learners

As the child of Indian immigrants, a good number of the movies I grew up seeing were Bollywood films. The main attraction for most Indian people, in my experience, is not the story, so much as the music. While many American people remember Disney films and the music in them, the story seems to stay with them much more than the music. This could be because Bollywood film stories are really not that great, but music occupies a different space in Indian society, particularly in the use of the Hindi language. (Note: I say Hindi here, because I cannot speak for Urdu, as I am not Pakistani or familiar with Urdu cinema.)

In Western music, the diction of song lyrics (at least in modern times) is not terribly different from that which is used by people in their daily lives. Song lyrics in Western music often manipulate daily language into something more meaningful to create different effects. However, this is not the case with Hindi. The particular lexicon used by most Indian music (not just in Hindi; other Indian languages due this) have poetic and/or religious undertones. Most poetry in India is accompanied by music, and not recited independently. The vocabulary of Hindi music is very different from colloquial language, and cannot be used in such a context.

With the advent of cinema, the role of music in India has also changed Hindi as a language considerably. It has further distinguished conversational Hindi and its poetic counterpart, by showing them in very different circumstances. Musical and dance sequences include by songs that use poetic Hindi and/or Urdu. Urdu, in India, is regarded as a poetic version of Hindi that you would almost never use in daily conversation. In contrast, conversational Hindi is shown in the regular dialogue. As a result of this, many Indians deeply appreciate Urdu poetry and music as an art form, because it is not common in their daily lives otherwise. Urdu forms an important part of the Indian culture as the biggest part of its poetic history.

These facts present a few basic truths that learners of Hindi should recognize. First is that Bollywood movies contain a great deal of knowledge of both conversational and poetic Hindi. Much of the Hindi that you need to know exists in two or three Bollywood films. However, this brings us to the second fact: it is hard to appreciate Hindi without learning about the music. Part of learning a language is learning about the traditions and culture that it is a part of, which undoubtedly includes music. You should be familiar with some Urdu so that you can appreciate Bollywood cinema (at least some of them; I would advise against certain films), as a central part of the Hindi language.

The last important thing you need to know as a Hindi learner is that different genres of Indian movies in general do not use the same Hindi. It is a common trope in Indian cinema to portray ethnic neighborhoods, particular dialects, or other languages altogether. Historical fiction, such as Jodhaa Akbar, which portrays the relationship between a Muslim prince and Hindu princess during the era of the Mughals, uses a purer or regional/rustic form of Hindi that is not especially common anymore. That particular film is good for highlighting the differences between Urdu and Hindi, as they draw much of their vocabulary from different sources, Arabic/Farsi and Sanskrit, respectively. Religious films that portray Hindu mythology use an extremely Sanskrit-ized form of Hindi, which uses almost no Arabic or Farsi loanwords. On the other hand, films that center around Muslim neighborhoods will feature extensive use of Urdu as the form of conversation.

Films that I recommend for learning and pleasure include MardaaniJodhaa Akbar, Main Hoon Na, Lagaan, and Two States.

I hope you found this piece interesting, and feel free to leave any comments that you have! Don’t forget to share this on Facebook, Tumblr, or any other social network!