Week 6: A Daily Grind

During my sixth week, a lot of the initial excitement of coming to China started to fade, though that’s not to say that I’m not enjoying myself. I am certainly following a routine, since I go to class most of the week. The grind is definitely back, though I don’t hate it. I have a lot less to talk about in this post, but fear not, I have non-China(-ish) related news! I started learning Farsi last week because I was reading more about the grammar and it’s actually very structurally similar to Hindi-Urdu. The language doesn’t have noun gender, grammatical case, or tons of irregular verbs, so it’s easy to start learning, especially if you already know Hindi-Urdu (or another Indo-Aryan language), and even a Romance language, to some extent.

Anyway, I still managed to check out a few new places near my school, including the only mosque in Pudong! It’s a really interesting place, since every Friday, there’s a Muslim market where people from Xinjiang and other Muslim merchants sell their delicious wares. Since I’m vegetarian, I couldn’t actually eat that much food there, but I was very pleased with what I could eat.

Muslims in China actually have a long history, and the state of Xinjiang is Muslim majority. There are two main Muslim communities, the Uyghurs and the Hui. The Uyghurs are of Turkic ancestry, and have their own language, which is related to Turkish. The Uyghur language has many loanwords from Persian and Arabic, since most speakers are Muslim, though in recent years more loans have come from Russian and Mandarin. The Hui Muslims are said to be descendants of Persian traders who settled in Northwestern China, as well as converts during the Ming Dynasty.

There aren’t a lot of Muslims in China, but in Shanghai, there are people from all over, including from countries that are majority Muslim. My school has many Pakistani students, some Bosnians, and there are Muslim Malays, among many other nationalities who come to this mosque every Friday. It’s one of the only reliable places to get halal food, along with the small number of halal eateries scattered throughout Shanghai. Fortunately, they’re easy to spot since they’ll have the word حلال (halal in Arabic) written somewhere, usually in green. I’m not Muslim, but I’ve had a lot of interest in Sufi philosophy and the history of Islam in general. A lot of people, unless I tell them I’m Hindu, assume that I’m Muslim because if I start talking about it, I get really into it. It’s really fascinating stuff, but I won’t get into the specifics here.

It was pretty cool walking around, though there was an elderly man who was trying to usher me and two of my roommates (one who’s Indian and the other is Chinese) into the mosque for prayer, assuming that we were Muslim. It was somewhat awkward explaining (in Mandarin) that we weren’t Muslim and we were just looking around. It didn’t help that none of us knew the word for “Muslim” in Mandarin offhand. He didn’t seem pleased with me taking pictures of the inside of the mosque while the Jummah prayer was taking place, so I will not post those photos out of respect for the space.

The market is right outside the gate of the mosque, and there’s a line of vendors selling all sorts of items, including lamb kebabs, freshly baked naan (a different kind from the Indian naan I’m used to), noodle dishes, and even cake! The noodles I had were a simple preparation of knife-pared noodles with cucumbers, peanuts, chili oil, and vinegar. It’s a nice snack, though not especially substantial. That said, it was only 5 kuai, so it’s more than a good deal.

I believe the naan was about 15 kuai; I thought it was quite nice, though it doesn’t taste as good once it cools off. They bake it in these special ovens that are very similar to tandoors used in India to make naan!

But what takes the proverbial cake was the cake! It wasn’t fancy or anything, but it was a substantial slab of sweet, creamy goodness. The pictures really don’t do it justice, but it was really good considering that it wasn’t refrigerated.

It looks like a tiramisù mille-feuille, but it’s difficult to describe the flavor as anything other than milk cream and chocolate. The funny thing is that I essentially ended up eating cake for lunch since the box (when it was full) was 55 kuai. I had actually wanted only about half the amount, but because of some confusion, I actually paid the vendor more, so she gave me enough extra cake to compensate.

For about a 2×2 inch block of cake (please don’t quote me on measurements, I’m really horrible at eyeballing dimensions), it would have been 30 kuai, so, again, a quite good deal. I intend to come back here (especially for the cake), so you’ll likely see these pictures again!

My roommates and I also went to a nearby Mexican restaurant on Saturday night, which was an interesting experience, to say the least. It was kind of a mix between a Tex-Mex place and authentic Mexican in terms of what it was trying to offer, both in terms of food and also aesthetically. I ordered enmoladas, or enchiladas with mole sauce, a type of Oaxacan sauce that is often made with cacao and various chiles. The serving size was actually pretty decent, seeing as most of the type, Chinese serving sizes are pretty small in my opinion.

 

The restaurant’s name was Pistolera, and isn’t far from Jinqiao Road by bike. If you head down Biyun Road between Yunshan Road and Hongfeng Road, it’ll be there near some other Western restaurants. The food itself was not bad, but quite overpriced at 95 kuai. Foreigners beware: you will pay a premium for any kind of Western food in China, even if it’s not authentic or good. This dish should have been no more than 50-60 kuai, especially since the mole sauce just kind of tasted like a generic bean sauce. I don’t think I’ll come here that often if at all seeing as I’m not exactly craving Mexican food in Shanghai that often.

I hope you enjoyed this post, and that you look forward to next week’s post!

Language in Jeopardy: How to Protect Our Mother Tongues in Public

Take a look at this article before reading on: http://blog.angryasianman.com/2016/06/40-civil-rights-groups-demand.html

When I read this post from Angry Asian Man, I became an angry Asian man, to say the least. This kind of ignorance needs to be stamped out. In an age where Islamic terrorism threatens the lives of innocent Muslims who live in the diaspora, we need to be more vigilant on the behalf of these members of our societies. It is our responsibility to listen to them when they decry Islamic terrorism, rather than ignore them and then ask why they don’t say anything.

But more than anything, this incident’s relation to language struck me particularly strongly. Why the hell are these two men being arrested because some idiotic passenger thinks that any brown-skinned people speaking a language they don’t understand is a terrorist. When this keeps happening on planes, buses, and other forms of public transport, I’m just floored by the people who say they should have been speaking English. Let’s consider the facts: these two men are foreign nationals (Pakistani and Indian respectively) who don’t speak English very well and are in a land very far from home. It’s only natural that they would find solace in finding someone else who speaks their language in a foreign land. Why do people suddenly have to place a label of suspicion on people who haven’t done anything, or cannot be proven to have done anything?

The lack of respect for the Sikh man’s violation of his person by removing his turban, a sacred item in the Sikh religion, is not enough, apparently. This man is apparently not even allowed speak his own language with someone else who does.

Something similar happened with a Chinese woman in Arizona (you can read the article here). Getting punched by someone for speaking your mother tongue in public is racist, prejudiced, and unbelievably horrible in so many ways. Even though I live and go to school in fairly liberal places (California and New York, respectively), I’m dreading the day where I have to be careful about what language I speak in public. As an aspiring polyglot who aims to specialize in Mandarin and Arabic translation/interpretation, these incidents are of great concern to me. These people who hear Arabic, Punjabi, Chinese, and other Asian and Middle Eastern languages in public and then react in these ways are a problem. This needs to stop. But what can we do?

  1. If you hear or see someone making private or public accusations of terrorism based on someone’s appearance or what language they’re using, you tell them that’s not okay. Just because you can’t tell the difference between Punjabi and Arabic doesn’t automatically mean they’re Middle Eastern, and that definitely doesn’t mean they’re terrorists even if they were. Leave them alone!
  2. Start learning other languages! Those who know other languages are frequently more open-minded than others and are exposed to a wider variety of opinions and beliefs than they might be otherwise. We should be instituting the teaching of Arabic and immigrant languages in schools rather than traditionally taught languages like French, Latin, or Spanish. Mandarin in schools is a step in teh right direction.
  3. Help out non-English speaking communities by employing your language to supply them with opportunities for jobs, community, basic amenities, and other necessities for living in a country where few people speak your language.
  4. To immigrant children: Don’t let go of your language. If you never knew it, try to get back in touch with it. Help out those in your community who need you. If you don’t speak it well, it’s never too late to start brushing up (as I can testify in the case of my Kannada skills).

And no, just because this is America doesn’t mean you have to speak English all the time. This isn’t a refusal to speak English at all. But if I want to have a conversation in another language, I have every right to do so. You have no business regulating what and what I can’t say, since we have the freedom of speech. Not everything we say has to be for public consumption. Immigrants and other people use their languages because it’s what’s comfortable for them. We are under no obligation or responsibility to use English if we don’t need or want to. Don’t tell us what to speak.

Stop demonizing immigrants and their languages.

Thanks to Angry Asian Man for these articles. They have inspired me to be more active and political in my involvement with language.

Racism in Language: The Origins of “Black” People

After having read Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad, I participated in a Socratic discussion on the mimesis (the manifestation of societal or real-world perspectives in art) of racism in the novel. This got me thinking: certain words in different languages have inherently racist, exclusionary, or derogatory meanings or undertones.

Let’s consider the word, “black.” It is a common word, not really seen as offensive or rude by most people. However, as one of my classmates pointed out, the use of a color to refer to an entire people is indeed somewhat if not entirely pejorative in sentiment (historically speaking of course). This is evident in the fact that most Romance languages, those of countries that participated in slavery of some kind in the New World, do not use the actual word for “black” to refer to those of African descent, not in polite/accepted speech anyway. There is no overlap between the color and the demographic term. In Spanish, you would would say moreno/morena or prieto/prieta (though as I understand it, the latter is highly offensive in the Caribbean). Even Portuguese, the language of the country that initiated the slave trade in the first place, distinguishes negro and preto in reference to people as polite and offensive, respectively. As Dr. Molefi Kete Asante points out, this supposedly neutral term stems from a generalization for all the Africans of different ethnic groups and backgrounds.

African cultural and ethnic differences were neither recorded nor considered important in making distinctions, any African was black, and any black was a Negro, and Negroes had no cultural heritage. To recognize Africans as Asante, Yoruba, Ibo, Ibibio, Hausa, Mandingo, Fulani, Wolof, Serere, Kikongo, Fante, and so forth would have meant ascribing history, cosmologies, indeed, humanity to those who were enslaved. Without humanity, Africans could be called the worst epithets thinkable by white Americans.

Now, here’s another word: kaffir. This is widely known to be a word akin to the n-word in English in both its history and severity as a pejorative, mostly in South Africa, against Africans. This word comes from the Portuguese borrowing from Arabic for non-Muslim peoples in Africa. The original word itself simply means, “non-believer” with respect to Islam. However, you may also be familiar with the kaffir lime. This fruit’s name has similar but separate origins. Hindus and Muslims alike on the Indian subcontinent adopted the Arabic term to refer to the people of Sri Lanka, where the fruits were grown, and so they were named. As as result, this word does have racist connotations as well. However, in many places, particularly in Muslim countries and India, the word is completely innocuous, simply meaning, “disbeliever” with respect to one’s own religion, though it is not necessarily a nice thing to say.

I’m not sure I can find any other words at the moment, but I am sure they exist in every language. Feel free to share this on Facebook and Tumblr and discuss this (in a civil manner, I hope)!

Languages That Should Be Taught in High Schools But Aren’t

So, I’ve recently been thinking about how much people treat foreign language study as a chore. Universities and high schools often require at least two consecutive years of the study of the same language for admission and graduation respectively. I believe that this treatment of such a field can be remedied by freeing up the choices that students have in this respect. This means, you can’t just offer Spanish, French, and Mandarin Chinese and expect them to be happy with it. People like to have a lot of choices and  might want to learn some other language. Most importantly, why are we only teaching three languages? French is not very useful outside of France, Canada, Switzerland, and a few African countries (sorry, French speakers, but it’s true). Spanish is in a similar position, although it has the advantage of being more  intelligible with respect to Portuguese and Italian, and having more applications within the United States, specifically. Mandarin Chinese is indeed useful in China, a major economic and political entity, and its introduction into American education systems is admirable. But this is only the first step.

However, first of all, I want to make something clear: Spanish and French don’t need to be removed from the curriculum. They are still useful, in their own ways, but in the context of the whole world, they lack in usability. People should still learn them, whatever their reasons are. However, we should introduce more useful languages (or at least make these more widely taught), which I’m going to  list and explain. Remember, in the context of the United States as whole, I regard these as true, because the languages below have a greater number of uses overall than Spanish or French. Part of my definition of usefulness includes how much you can use the language in the world.

1) Arabic, Farsi, and Hebrew

OK, while it certainly doesn’t need to be each of these in the same school, but there’s no denying that these would be extremely useful. Arabic is important, because of negotiations and diplomacy in the Arab League nations, such as Saudi Arabia, Iraq, and Syria. Farsi is also important, because with the right tactics, America could actually enter into peaceful relations with Iran. We don’t even have an embassy or formal diplomatic relations with them, for God’s sake! We have an embargo on trade with them, which was set up in 1995. Lastly, Hebrew is useful for similar reasons, as if we could have more diplomats in Israel to help resolve tensions between Israelites and Palestinians and also between Israel and surrounding Muslim countries. The Middle Eastern languages in general, I feel, are powerful diplomatic tools.

2) Japanese and Korean

These two languages are native to two very important nations that directly concern the United States. Not only that, Japan and South Korea are formidable world powers in their own rights. In both nations, there are a number of growing business opportunities. Not only that, they can be easier alternatives to learning Mandarin Chinese, especially Korean.

3) German and Russian

German might come as a surprise, because many people in Germany can probably speak English pretty well. However, it is my firm belief that communication is always done better in the language of the country you’re visiting. It’s kind of a matter of politeness. Russian can be useful, because not only are there economic opportunities in Russia, it’s also possible to work with Russian in the diplomatic field, because Slavic languages, particularly the ones of the former Soviet Republics, are mutually intelligible with Russian.

It is certainly important to consider the regional uses of these languages. Korean will be more useful than Russian to a physician on the West Coast, due to a larger Korean population. But that’s for another post. The key idea is that the listed languages are useful, because their global contexts are much greater. In high school, most people have not decided what they want to do, and having a language that is useful in relatively high number of contexts is invaluable.

If you have any thoughts on this yourself, or if you think there are any other languages you think should be included in schools, do say so in the comments!