Playing Final Fantasy X… in Italian! – Part 2

This is the second (and final) installment in the Final Fantasy X Italian series, as I’ve finished the game. Playing through the game is fun as well always, but it’s also very interesting to see how translators choose to get the meaning across of a work of fiction. In my opinion, fiction can be much harder to work with, especially if it’s of the fantasy genre. Fantasy invents entire worlds, languages, and hosts of new words to describe the universe. I qualify this with works such as The Lord of the Rings, which is the prime example of this situation, considering it has several whole languages translators have to deal with, as well as several cultures, which were concocted in English. The translators for The Lord of the Rings must have had their work cut out for them.

Anyway, the topic at hand is Final Fantasy X, a game from Square Enix, released in 2001, and re-released in HD on the PS3 in 2013. For the past week or so, I’ve been studying the game in Italian. The dub is in English, but subtitles and other game text are all in Italian. This makes for great study material, as you can accumulate vocabulary and immerse yourself in the language. You can read about my analysis of the first half of the game here, if you haven’t already. Now, let’s get started with Part 2!

The mode of address for authority figures and normal people is made very distinct.

I should have noted this in the first part of the game, but it is much more present in the second half, as the story much more heavily involves authorities and the government in the world of the game. In Italian, as in all Romance languages, there is a tu-vous distinction, or a distinction between a non-polite and polite form of address in the second person. Perhaps due to the pseudo-medieval context of the game, translators chose to include the third mode of address, reserved for authorities, particularly rulers and religious authorities, which is somewhat outdated in Italian in the real world. The central religious organization of the world of the game, the Church of Yevon, is run by four main figures, known as maesters. Lower on the social ladder are the summoners, who serve to protect the people under the Church’s control. Both of them are often addressed using the second person plural pronoun, voi. Though it is effectively the plural version of the pronoun tu, the non-polite second person pronoun, the use of voi toward a single person is a gesture of great respect, the second person version of the royal “we” in English. In the English version, this is not made apparent through the pronoun you, but rather addressing the figure in question as, “My lord/lady”, “Milord/milady”, “Lord/Lady summoner,” or “Your Grace”. This imparts the same effect as using voi, which is very interesting as a stylistic choice. Another nuance that has, perhaps unintentionally, been added to the game in translation, is the shift between tu (non-polite), lei (polite), and voi (royal “you”). For certain characters in different scenes, this can express intimacy or contempt. This is especially powerful for one of the characters who has unwaveringly followed the Church’s teachings, and once she is branded a traitor for doing her duty, she is shaken, and one of the antagonists who attempts to use her is one of the Church’s maesters. She noticeably shifts from addressing him with voi to using tu, which, under normal circumstances, would not only be rude, but is much more immediately indicative of her character development, from being polite and respectful to all superiors without question, to making decisions for herself. Since the game was originally in Japanese, this might also be more apparent about her in Japanese in a similar way, considering the much more complex system of formality, respect, and connotative pronouns than those in Western languages.

A very crucial detail to the story is completely left out until a point where it basically doesn’t matter!

This is less an analytical point, than it is, in my opinion, a mistake on the translators’ part. This detail (unavoidable spoilers here) concerns the objective of the summoners’ pilgrimages, which is to train to receive what is known as the Final Summoning. This is a supernatural power that allows the summoner to defeat the destructive force known as Sin. However, there is a catch: the act of doing so takes the summoner’s life in the process of the summoning. This calls into question as to whether this is even ethical or worth the effort, considering Sin reappears two years after it is defeated. Now, he translation in Italian does not articulate this at all. It simply states that the summoners will defeat Sin, and will die doing so. (“Sconfiggerà Sin.. ma anche lei morirà!“; that is the line from the game, almost verbatim.) For those of you who don’t know Italian, this line does not explain that the Final Summoning itself kills the summoner. In fact, it might actually imply that the summoner dies as a casualty of the battle against Sin!

This is repeated in the same manner over and over again, until a point much later in the game, where a person explains that the summoner will perform the Final Summoning, die, and Sin will be defeated temporarily. At this point in game, you’re about to fight the person responsible for granting the Final Summoning to the summoners, which completely eliminates it from the equation and as a plot device.

I suppose, if you’re an Italian speaker with some knowledge of English and you can understand most of what is said to you, this does not present a problem. However, what I feel is more likely, is that Italian speakers are depending more on the subtitles for information, rather than what is being spoken aloud. Not to mention that the Italian text that shows the fact explained above is somewhat “blink and you miss it”. This, I consider an egregious error.

The concept of an “unsent” has more than word used to translate it.

More explanation here: an “unsent” is a person who has not received a sending, a supernatural funeral of sorts, which was explained in Part 1. This ceremony is required to make sure that the souls are laid to rest in peace. If they do not receive this ceremony, they either become fiends due to their resentment of the living, or they become an “unsent”, which is effectively their body and mind (some simplification here) bound to the physical world by the sheer force of their will to stay alive and accomplish something they were not able to in life.

Now, the fact that this word has more than one translation is not an altogether bad thing, I think. Actually, it could be a good thing, since the word is a bit ambiguous or multi-faceted, whichever you think it is. Since an “unsent” is neither dead nor alive, and is still, in appearance, like any other person, it’s not exactly appropriate to translate it as spettro or fantasma (“specter” and “ghost” respectively). The words used to translate “unsent” are still debatable, however. Occasionally, in sentences where I might expect the translated word to be used, the word morto is used instead, which is just a dead person. Granted, this may not have been the intention, since the meaning of “dead person” is easily substituted for the same meaning in the sentences in question, in which case there’s no problem. The most consistently used word is non-trapassato, which is literally “non-passed-away” or “non-dead”. It’s just a negated form of trapassato, and in context, it implies a person who has been “sent”. Since the original Japanese used for the term is 死人/死者 (shibito/shibisha), which means “dead person/departed”, it’s probably the closest translation possible.

Despite my little qualms here and there with translation, it’s largely my opinion. I thoroughly enjoyed experiencing the game in a new way, and I still highly recommend this game in general. For language learners, changing the language of a game or a system is an invaluable tool to getting immersion practice, so I highly suggest that you do so at some point.

I hope you enjoyed this mini-post-series on Final Fantasy X. I’m considering doing this again for other games (in a different language, I suppose), among which I’m considering Final Fantasy XIII and Kingdom Hearts. Please share this post on Facebook and Tumblr!

Food for Thought (About Italian!)

When I went to Italy two years ago, I got to experience how to cook real Italian food with Giglio Cooking in Florence. I was looking at some of our photos, and today, I decided that I’ll cover Italian food culture today! There are several things I’m going to go over in this post, including words for certain foods, Italian food-related etiquette, and about Italian food in general. As much as this blog is about language, it’s also about culture!

The size of a meal

While this obviously varies in different parts of the country, a good rule of thumb in Italy is that meals, ascending in size, are ordered so: breakfast, dinner, lunch. You might find it odd that dinner isn’t the largest meal, but this is completely normal in Italy! Lunchtime is often the biggest meal of the day partly because much of the family or coworkers have lunch together to relax. It is considered poor taste to discuss work at the lunch table if you can avoid it. Having a heavy meal also makes one sleepy, and it is not uncommon for cities to slow down a little after lunch, since many people go home to take a nap. This tiramisù looks delicious, doesn’t it? Too bad there’s already a bite taken out of it!

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Family meals VS Formal meals

Some people think that Italian meals are regularly extravagant, multi-course affairs. However, most Italian people are just like everybody else, and don’t have time to put together such a meal! A family meal can be very large as mentioned before, and often consists of fresh, homemade dishes. You probably have the image of an elderly Italian woman working away in the kitchen making dinner for her family, perhaps with help from her daughters. Italian family meals are informal affairs and focus on enjoying food with one’s family. As you can tell from the photo below, making fresh pasta, like pansotti, is a tiring process. (In case you’re wondering, the person making the pasta in the photo is me!) Fun fact: pansotti means “pot-bellied”, which is a fitting name for this stuffed pasta.

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Now, in contrast, formal Italian meals are very complex, and do consist of multiple courses, served in a specific order. Italian cuisine prides itself on serving only the freshest food to please diners. As a result, Italian restaurants in Italy avoid making too much food in advance, as it will get cold and won’t taste as good. A typical formal meal in Italy consists of the following courses in order: aperitivi, antipasti, primi piatti, secondi piatti con contorni, dolci, and digestivi. The first course, aperitivi, consists of alcoholic drinks meant to stimulate the appetite, particularly wines such as Prosecco, Cinzano, and Vermouth, and they accompany the antipastiAntipasti literally means “before the meal”, and consists of small appetizers, which may be cold foods like prosciutto and other cured meats, as well as cheeses, mushrooms, artichoke hearts, and olives. The primi piatti (“first dishes”) are typically pasta, gnocchi, soups, or risotto. You might not know that strictly speaking, gnocchi aren’t considered pasta, as they are not prepared in the same way as pasta and are more like potato dumplings than anything. Secondi piatti (“second dishes”) are the largest portions of the meal, consisting of meat and fish. Dolci (“sweets”) follow those dishes, and are usually fruits, certain pastries, as well as other sweet dishes, such as the world-famous tiramisù. The word comes from the phrase tirami su, which means “pick me up”. Considering that it has rum and coffee in it, it’s bound to do so! To end the meal, diners often have coffee with digestivi (“digestives”), which are digestive liqueurs, also referred to as ammazzacaffè (“coffee-killers”).

Dining etiquette

Now, regardless of whether it is a family or formal gathering, there are few basic rules of dining etiquette in Italy. First, never start eating before the host has declared the meal to have started. In restaurants, putting your utensils on your plate signals that you are done eating, so put them to the side if you’re not done. It is highly improper to try and mop up all the sauce on your plate with bread; do it delicately!

Perhaps most surprising about Italian etiquette is that wishing someone Buon appetito! (Bon appetit in French and English) is impolite! It comes from a medieval Italian threat, in which the host would say this to his guests to effectively say “Eat well now, because if you don’t behave, you will not be invited again.” It is also seen as poor manners to fidget, touch oneself (very bad!), or put one’s hands or elbows on the table, for anything but eating.

Ingredients in Italian cuisine and dietary restrictions

If you’ve ever been to an Italian restaurant, you may be fond of the red and marinara sauces, the ones that are more famous. Well, here’s some trivia for you: the tomato is not a native ingredient to Italian cuisine, and was brought by the Spanish from the New World! It is now a popular ingredient in Southern Italy, due to being relatively cheap and easy to grow. The North uses more vegetables native to Italy, making much more frequent use of cattle and dairy products. Southern Italian cuisine has many influences from Arab traders and Spanish rule, using rice, spices, and most importantly, the tomato. Also, due its greater dependency on the coasts for economic reasons, Southern Italy makes heavy use of fish.

Now if you’re like me, a vegetarian and a non-drinker, you may feel that your lifestyle is practically anathema to the Italian way of eating. Like most cuisines of the world, the Italian diet is largely meat, particularly fish. Just as in many other countries, fish is not considered meat, because it’s a separate dish entirely. To add onto that, Italians will almost never go a meal without a glass of fine wine. Thankfully, the latter is a reasonably forgivable (to them anyway) thing. Alcohol in Italy is a traditionally moderate practice, and public drunken-ness (AKA going to a bar and getting wasted) is highly frowned upon. If you’re getting a little tipsy at an Italian dinner, it would be well-mannered to either drink less or simply not drink at all for the rest of the meal.

As for vegetarianism, this is a little harder. According to Life in Italy‘s post, “Vegetarians in Italy” (linked here), vegetarianism is gaining more traction in Italy, and in many big cities, if you ask, restaurants are happy to oblige. That being said, you have to be careful, as there are certain dishes that are secretly meat-based, such as soups (it’s not a bad idea to ask if there’s fish broth) and a few antipasti. Fortunately, many dishes in Italian cuisine are vegetarian, including a wide variety of vegetable contorni and hearty pasta dishes with delicious sauces.

For other dietary restrictions, such as halal, halal meat is gaining more visibility in Italy, due to a recent influx of Muslim immigrants. Vegans will have the hardest time in Italy, as milk, cream, and cheese are popular ingredients that would be difficult to omit from dishes, even if you asked. But it never hurts to try and ask for accommodations.
I hope you found this post interesting, and please share this on Facebook and Tumblr!