Week 6: A Daily Grind

During my sixth week, a lot of the initial excitement of coming to China started to fade, though that’s not to say that I’m not enjoying myself. I am certainly following a routine, since I go to class most of the week. The grind is definitely back, though I don’t hate it. I have a lot less to talk about in this post, but fear not, I have non-China(-ish) related news! I started learning Farsi last week because I was reading more about the grammar and it’s actually very structurally similar to Hindi-Urdu. The language doesn’t have noun gender, grammatical case, or tons of irregular verbs, so it’s easy to start learning, especially if you already know Hindi-Urdu (or another Indo-Aryan language), and even a Romance language, to some extent.

Anyway, I still managed to check out a few new places near my school, including the only mosque in Pudong! It’s a really interesting place, since every Friday, there’s a Muslim market where people from Xinjiang and other Muslim merchants sell their delicious wares. Since I’m vegetarian, I couldn’t actually eat that much food there, but I was very pleased with what I could eat.

Muslims in China actually have a long history, and the state of Xinjiang is Muslim majority. There are two main Muslim communities, the Uyghurs and the Hui. The Uyghurs are of Turkic ancestry, and have their own language, which is related to Turkish. The Uyghur language has many loanwords from Persian and Arabic, since most speakers are Muslim, though in recent years more loans have come from Russian and Mandarin. The Hui Muslims are said to be descendants of Persian traders who settled in Northwestern China, as well as converts during the Ming Dynasty.

There aren’t a lot of Muslims in China, but in Shanghai, there are people from all over, including from countries that are majority Muslim. My school has many Pakistani students, some Bosnians, and there are Muslim Malays, among many other nationalities who come to this mosque every Friday. It’s one of the only reliable places to get halal food, along with the small number of halal eateries scattered throughout Shanghai. Fortunately, they’re easy to spot since they’ll have the word حلال (halal in Arabic) written somewhere, usually in green. I’m not Muslim, but I’ve had a lot of interest in Sufi philosophy and the history of Islam in general. A lot of people, unless I tell them I’m Hindu, assume that I’m Muslim because if I start talking about it, I get really into it. It’s really fascinating stuff, but I won’t get into the specifics here.

It was pretty cool walking around, though there was an elderly man who was trying to usher me and two of my roommates (one who’s Indian and the other is Chinese) into the mosque for prayer, assuming that we were Muslim. It was somewhat awkward explaining (in Mandarin) that we weren’t Muslim and we were just looking around. It didn’t help that none of us knew the word for “Muslim” in Mandarin offhand. He didn’t seem pleased with me taking pictures of the inside of the mosque while the Jummah prayer was taking place, so I will not post those photos out of respect for the space.

The market is right outside the gate of the mosque, and there’s a line of vendors selling all sorts of items, including lamb kebabs, freshly baked naan (a different kind from the Indian naan I’m used to), noodle dishes, and even cake! The noodles I had were a simple preparation of knife-pared noodles with cucumbers, peanuts, chili oil, and vinegar. It’s a nice snack, though not especially substantial. That said, it was only 5 kuai, so it’s more than a good deal.

I believe the naan was about 15 kuai; I thought it was quite nice, though it doesn’t taste as good once it cools off. They bake it in these special ovens that are very similar to tandoors used in India to make naan!

But what takes the proverbial cake was the cake! It wasn’t fancy or anything, but it was a substantial slab of sweet, creamy goodness. The pictures really don’t do it justice, but it was really good considering that it wasn’t refrigerated.

It looks like a tiramisù mille-feuille, but it’s difficult to describe the flavor as anything other than milk cream and chocolate. The funny thing is that I essentially ended up eating cake for lunch since the box (when it was full) was 55 kuai. I had actually wanted only about half the amount, but because of some confusion, I actually paid the vendor more, so she gave me enough extra cake to compensate.

For about a 2×2 inch block of cake (please don’t quote me on measurements, I’m really horrible at eyeballing dimensions), it would have been 30 kuai, so, again, a quite good deal. I intend to come back here (especially for the cake), so you’ll likely see these pictures again!

My roommates and I also went to a nearby Mexican restaurant on Saturday night, which was an interesting experience, to say the least. It was kind of a mix between a Tex-Mex place and authentic Mexican in terms of what it was trying to offer, both in terms of food and also aesthetically. I ordered enmoladas, or enchiladas with mole sauce, a type of Oaxacan sauce that is often made with cacao and various chiles. The serving size was actually pretty decent, seeing as most of the type, Chinese serving sizes are pretty small in my opinion.

 

The restaurant’s name was Pistolera, and isn’t far from Jinqiao Road by bike. If you head down Biyun Road between Yunshan Road and Hongfeng Road, it’ll be there near some other Western restaurants. The food itself was not bad, but quite overpriced at 95 kuai. Foreigners beware: you will pay a premium for any kind of Western food in China, even if it’s not authentic or good. This dish should have been no more than 50-60 kuai, especially since the mole sauce just kind of tasted like a generic bean sauce. I don’t think I’ll come here that often if at all seeing as I’m not exactly craving Mexican food in Shanghai that often.

I hope you enjoyed this post, and that you look forward to next week’s post!

Week 3: Finding the Right Fit

Here’s my rundown of my third week in China! Note: I should probably note that this is actually my fourth week in China, since I spent the first week mostly moving in and doing orientation-related activities for school. But I’m just going to run with the numbers I’ve done so far. With that, here we go!

Shopping in Shanghai

Shanghai is an enormous city, just like New York, and can be divided into at least two areas, roughly speaking: Puxi and Pudong. Puxi is west of the river, and is where most nightlife, shopping, restaurants, and generally fun things to do are located. Pudong is primarily a financial district, with many of Shanghai’s corporations, banks, and other companies having buildings here. It’s also where NYU Shanghai is located, so I’m in Pudong most of the week. That’s not to say there’s nothing to do in Pudong, since there are a few malls here and there, along with food stalls that open

On the weekends, I usually go to somewhere in Puxi with friends, and this weekend, shopping was a big part of my travels. Specifically, I was trying to find a new pair of shoes, ones that I could wear for going out, but not casual. Regardless of what I was looking for, I wasn’t going to find it in any store whatsoever.

I’m a fairly large person, even in the US (though definitely on the smaller end of plus size individuals). This is especially true in China, where people my size are few and far between (yes, I’m aware that people like Yao Ming exist). But the trouble for them, and expats of my size, is finding clothing items that fit them. For me personally, finding clothes wasn’t a huge issue, since if I go to Western stores like Zara and Uniqlo, there will usually be larger sizes like XL and XXL available (my usually size range when shopping). Chinese brands are a little harder, and XL is considered quite big, and generally speaking, I have to look for at least a size larger for a given item to fit.

IFC Mall

However, shoes are the biggest problem. I wear a US size 13, which is about as far as most US outlets go, though some stock up to 14 or 15 (I haven’t seen anything larger). But in China, they use the European sizing system, which I believe is in centimeters. It is ridiculously difficult to find my size in China!  Contrary to most sites with equivalency tables, a 46 is NOT a size 13; it’s a 12.5 at best, since I ordered a pair of size 46 shoes from Taobao (the Chinese version of Amazon, though with much lower prices), and they were too small! I started asking for 47, but even in most Western brand stores, the largest size I found was a 44. The one time I did find a size 47, it was in a Clarks, and it was ridiculously priced at around 1800 RMB for a shoe I didn’t feel was particularly worth the expense.

My online searches seemed to indicate that the only recourse was to find stores that explicitly stock plus-sized shoes, look more online, or go to places like Charles Philip to have a custom pair of shoes handmade (which I don’t recommend unless you have the money to spare). For now, I’m sticking to trying to find something online again. If anyone has some ideas, I’m all ears!

Adventures in Food

My travels in food this week brought me to relatively more upscale places than I usually frequent in New York. When you’re vegetarian in the US, it’s commonly assumed that you really can’t eat anything, and by extension, anything you can eat is relatively inexpensive. I am used to paying no more than $13-14 USD for my meals in New York (which I consider somewhat pricey, given my frugal upbringing).

I was surprised to see that the vast majority of vegetarian and vegan restaurants in Shanghai seem to be fairly upscale. I can’t really guess as to why this is the case, but since the RMB is only around $0.15, and I might not get the chance to do this again, I figured that spending a little extra on food is not such a bad thing. At my school’s cafeteria, my meals run from about 10 to 30 kuai, the colloquial word for the RMB in English, from the word 快/塊 (kuài), which is the measure word for currency in Mandarin. Interestingly enough, the colloquial word for the RMB in Mandarin, 元 (yuán), is sometimes used as the formal term for the RMB in English, labeled as the CNY (Chinese yuan).

Anyway, my vegetarian meals at restaurants in Shanghai are also usually no more than about 20-30 kuai, though sometimes I’ve spent 40-50 kuai, usually by buying a drink. Specialty drinks, such as mocktails or freshly brewed tea can often cost an extra 10 to 30 kuai, depending on the restaurant. This weekend, my friends and I went to the Portmann Ritz-Carlton, and checked out the restaurants near there, including one called Beef and Liberty, which is to the left of the entrance of the hotel as you walk toward it (to the right if you’re coming out). Coincidentally, Saigon Mama (the Vietnamese restaurant I went to from last week) is directly across from Beef and Liberty.

 

 

 

 

 

Beef and Liberty is a fairly small American burger restaurant, and despite its name, serves a variety of different burgers, including a vegetarian falafel burger! Be warned, as it is pricier than most restaurants I’ve been to so far. Sadly, the only vegetarian burger they have is their falafel burger, but fret not, as it was one of the best burgers I’ve ever had! (That means something coming from someone who doesn’t really like burgers in the first place!)

The Falafel Burger (with a side of fries)

The falafel burger burger has a sesame sauce and a harissa yogurt sauce on it, so it has a bit of a kick, but the yogurt tames it a little bit (I would have preferred plain harissa, to be honest). While most people tend to thing of veggie burgers as not real burgers or not substantial enough, this burger was a hefty one, with a thick, crunchy exterior, but soft and almost fluffy inside. Each burger comes with a side of fries that aren’t oily and not too crunchy either, which I quite appreciated, and it certainly filled me up.

Aerial view (for an idea of how big it is)

But something must be said about the ketchup. Now, most ketchup in the US (which is often Heinz ketchup) is very sweet and seems unnaturally smooth and shiny. I usually avoid ketchup in favor of hot sauces like Sriracha and Cholula. Beef and Liberty provides bottles of Wilkin and Sons ketchup on each table, which was far better than most ketchup I’ve had, with a sweetness that came from the tomatoes and a little sugar, rather than corn syrup (the predominant sweetener in the US). It was more natural-tasting, and I really enjoyed the meal overall. The bottles don’t have a lot in them, so be careful about running out (I don’t know if they charge to replace them)!

The whole meal came out to 78 kuai, plus 30 kuai for a drink (a Liberty Lemonade, a sparkling lemonade with mint essentially) . For 108 kuai, which is around $16.33, I paid for a meal that I quite enjoyed, and certainly for which I will be back in my time in Shanghai. I might not get the drink next time, simply because I usually don’t order them, and I didn’t think it was anything special. I then proceeded to pay 88 kuai for a “temperance cocktail”  (fancy word for a mocktail) at the Waldorf Astoria Long Bar, called the Secret Garden. It was quite good, flavored with elderflower, kiwi, and apple.

I don’t drink alcohol, but alcohol prices in China are also fairly low compared to the US (so I’m told). My friends frequently buy several bottles of soju and beer from the nearby Family Mart (the Chinese 7-11; called 全家 (quán jiā) in Mandarin) every weekend after dinner (if not more often). Restaurants may charge around 20-50 kuai for a glass of beer or wine.

ರಕ್ತ (rakta – blood; Kannada) superimposed onto 家 (jiā – family; Mandarin)

Another interesting thing I came across was that one of my favorite stores, Muji, is completely different in China. It’s mostly a clothing store in China, whereas in the US, their products primarily consist of home goods and stationery. I can’t speak to the quality of their clothing, but they sell a variety of pens, notepads, and other stationery that are quite good quality (especially the pens). The pens don’t bleed and they come in different sizes. The Chinese locations sell brush pens, which they seem to have discontinued in the US, and it’s a shame because they’re really quite good quality! To the right is one of my calligraphy pieces using a Muji brush pen.

However, I discovered another oddity at Muji: ASIAN FOOD KITS. I’ve never seen these items at the Muji stores in the US, and I had no idea they make these things. I don’t know about the quality, but I will have to try it some time (the prices on these seem a little high in my opinion).

Anyway, that’s all for this week, and I look forward to writing next week’s post!

Week 1 in China: Food

Hello all! My first week in China is over, and I have a few pictures and stories to tell. This post will be about my vegetarian food findings, since I have a lot to share, and I’ll probably make another post later. Because I’m vegetarian, I will be talking exclusively about vegetarianism, and I can’t really vouch for the availability of vegan options (Sorry!). With that, here we go!

Number One: Knowing Mandarin makes your life infinitely easier in China.

I don’t care what other travel bloggers have said, but knowing Mandarin is strongly recommended if you go to China. This is mandatory if you’re a vegetarian, since there are only a handful of restaurants and eateries that are truly vegetarian. Knowing the following few phrases will help you if you’re vegetarian:

我吃素/斋(齋)*。- Wŏ chī sù/zhāi. – I am vegetarian
我不吃肉。- Wŏ bù chī ròu. – I don’t eat meat.
海鲜(鮮)不可以。- Hăixiān bū kĕyĭ. – Seafood is not okay/I can’t eat seafood.
請你別放肉。- Qĭng nĭ bié fàng ròu. – Please don’t put meat.
請問,這個有肉嗎?- Qĭng wèn, does this have meat? – Excuse me, does this meat?

*I haven’t used 我吃斋(齋) yet, but I’ve been told that it’s less vague than 我吃素, since it specifically relates to a Taoist/Chinese Buddhist vegetarian diet, which excludes eggs, milk, and many other animal derivatives that are not always considered meat in India.

萝卜糕和芋头糕/蘿蔔糕和芋頭糕 (Luóbo gāo hé yùtóu gāo) Fried radish and turnip cakes 

Being vegetarian in China is 100% possible and not very difficult, so long as you have a grasp of Mandarin and are willing to put a little more effort into find places beforehand, not to mention asking questions. Always, always ask. As someone who’s been vegetarian since birth, I can attest to the fact that you should never take anything for granted when it comes to food, and always ask the waiter or food providers if there are meat products in the food. If it means being that person at the table, so be it.

There are plenty of options at many restaurants; you need only ask or simply leaf through the menu. A lot traditional Chinese restaurants will have vegetable dishes with tofu or seitan (a gluten-based meat substitute), and you can order rice as well. For Western-style restaurants, such as Pizza Hut or Italian restaurants, it’s pretty hit and miss, and it is not uncommon for food items (including vegetarian ones) to actually sell out at relatively lower scale eateries. You can also find one or two things to eat at ramen restaurants, like this mushroom and vegetable ramen from Ajisen Ramen in Jinqiao Lifehub:

Generally speaking, food is pretty cheap in China right now, with 100 RMB going for about $15 USD. Items in upscale restaurants can be close to 100 RMB, which means that most items in other places are much less. This means a full bowl  bibimbap for around 25 RMB or a nice pasta dish for 60 RMB.

One of my favorite things in Shanghai so far is 蛋饼/蛋餅 (dàn bīng). . A 蛋饼/蛋餅 is kind of like a burrito, except that the filling is usually meat, vegetables, and sauce. For 7-8 RMB, it can serve as breakfast or a quick bite. The outer crepe part is similar to an Indian paratha, and I always get mine with an egg, ketchup, lettuce, and cheese. Because it’s on-the-go, I can go get my order from across the street, come back to my dorm room, and add stuff I have in my fridge (like fried mushrooms or Sriracha hot sauce).

After: with a little Sriracha sauce on top!
Before: a simple 蛋餅 with one egg, lettuce, cheese, and ketchup

The one downside (depending on how you look at it), is that you might be left a little hungry between meals since vegetables do have fewer calories. However, sweets are always vegetarian, and you can get ice cream, pastries, bubble tea, or other things that can satisfy a sweet tooth.

That’s all for this week, and I’ll hopefully have other interesting things to share with you all! Feel free to share this blog with your vegetarian friends who are thinking about a trip to China!

Coming Back from Hiatus: Meditating on Language Learning

Hello everyone! I realize it’s been a long time (nearly 3 months) since I posted last. I went on a somewhat unintentional hiatus, due to schoolwork as well as generally needing some time to think about my content. I will admit to having reached a bit of a plateau in my language learning, not being able to make significant progress in Korean and Hindi. I will be making a post on that later, but at the moment I just wanted to explain my lapse in posting.

This year was a turbulent one for people living in the United States, with the election season, and keeping up with that (as well as international happenings) took up a lot of my time. My major at NYU revolves around international relations, so naturally I needed to be in the know on those things. That’s not to say I was forsaking language learning, as I still kept up with Mandarin, since I was taking a class over this semester.

In the realm of language learning, I was having difficulty making time to study languages aside from Mandarin. I do want to make some more progress in Hindi and Korean, but I know that will take some time. I also had a lack of resources at NYU for Hindi and Korean, since I wasn’t taking a class in either one, and I didn’t have most of my language books with me.

While Hindi is an Indian language, it’s not my first language, and is unrelated to the languages that I do know. With a somewhat inconsistent grammar and a growing tendency among Hindi speakers to use anglicisms, or throwing in English words, it was difficult for me to gauge how to tailor my own learning. I am somewhat averse to using anglicisms because I feel like it makes more sense to use existing words for things that are reasonably short and/or practical.

As for Korean, it’s been a bit of a struggle due to inconsistencies on my part, since I haven’t properly committed time to learning it. My difficulty with Korean lies mostly in the fact that there are many, many ways to express the same thing in Korean, and operating along axes which I am not used to. Getting a feel for how native speakers express ideas in a practical and natural way is how I’m going to learn, but it’s slow going.

Anyway, I will try to write more posts in the coming weeks, and definitely improve my language learning strategies. I hope you all have had a wonderful New Year and holiday season. If you have any questions about language learning, just feel free to ask!

Why I Have a Chinese Name But I Don’t Want to be Called “Sean”

Photo credits to freshofftheboatdaily, since this isn’t mine.

One of my friends on Facebook shared the photo in this post recently, and it immediately struck a chord with me. Names are of enormous importance to many people of different cultures around the world, and sometimes the nuances of naming can vary between communities by the language they speak.

In the Indian subculture that I come from, newborns are given their names by the rite of nāmkarna, a Hindu ritual that uses astrology and natal charts to pick names. We believe that the names that we give our children is somehow determinant of their futures, and often, parents will choose a name (within the rules of the process, of course) that includes a kind of wish for who their child will grow to be, something that almost everyone can understand.

Other times, our names are one of the epithets of a Hindu deity. This can puzzle some people in the West, who might view naming your child after a god as a kind of arrogance or self-importance, but the idea in Indian cultures is completely different. By naming your child after a particular version of god (each epithet references a particular aspect of the god), it is both a hope that the child will live up to the name and also fulfills the idea that God is everywhere and in everyone. Calling the different names of a god is also considered auspicious, so naming people after a god is a part of that sentiment.

The cultural backgrounds behind choosing names can be complex and confusing, but also incredibly fascinating, in my opinion. The generational poems of Chinese naming customs allow for an entire generation of children to be named with something in common. I won’t get into the specifics, but you can read a little bit about generational poems here.

That brings me to the title of this post. As you may know, I have a Chinese name that I use exclusively for speaking in Chinese: 羅常羲 (Pinyin: luó cháng xī, Jyutping: lo4 soeng4 hei1). I got this name after multiple Chinese friends of mine asking me if I wanted one, so when I went to a Taiwanese cultural exhibition in Grand Central Station, my friends had a calligrapher make a name for me.

My real name is kind of clunky to say in Chinese (or rather the Sinicized version of my name), especially given the way people call each other in Chinese. Very often, since people can have similar-sounding or even identical first names, Chinese speakers will address each other using their full names. My name is apparently somewhat obscure, so I might be able to get away with just 常羲, but it would be more appropriate to use the full name. I’m OK with using this name partly due to convenience as well as because I didn’t mind having the name, since I kind of like it.

Now, this may contrast with the sentiment of the photo in this post, since you might expect me to tell my Chinese friends to say my name correctly. The thing is, the issue wasn’t that my friends couldn’t pronounce my name, but rather for the purposes of learning the Chinese language, it wasn’t especially suited to being pronounced the way it really is. And that, I’m willing to concede, and like I said: I don’t mind.

The thing is that when I was in elementary school, many students and teachers found my name (Shashank) difficult to pronounce, and many people wanted to call me “Sean”. Maybe because I was impetuous and defensive, I didn’t like that name. I wanted people to call me the name I chose to be called, and they had to pronounce it the way I wanted them to. Today, people trying to nickname me “Sean” still makes me a little uneasy, so I usually politely request that they use my real name. Even now, I still wonder why it was so difficult for them to say, considering my name is only two syllables.

The point is that I refuse to be called anything except Shashank and nicknames that I actually approve of. This goes for anyone, anywhere. You all deserve to have yourself be called what you wish. People should either pronounce the name correctly or shouldn’t say it at all. Obviously, this can sound a little extreme, and I make exceptions for people whose sound inventories don’t include certain sounds. It’s a problem when I know people are more than capable of pronouncing a name correctly, and still refuse to try and pronounce a name the way someone wants, all because they’re too lazy to ask.

In my freshman year at NYU, I’ve met some people who have non-English names, and purposely go with a heavily Anglicized pronunciation of their name, even though it’d be pretty easy for people to pronounce it as it’s written in the language (obviously within reason). At first, I was a little put off by it, but I have learned that how we pronounce our names is up to us, and if that means “white”-ifiying it versus the traditional pronunciation, so be it. I might not like it, but again: it’s not for me to decide.

The reality is that this idea of not using people’s real names or somehow compelling them to change the pronunciation or the name entirely for someone else’s convenience is often discussed in the context of ethnic minorities. This happens to a lot of people with “unconventional” or “foreign” names, regardless of race. But in the context of minorities in the US like myself, this often feeds into very subtle dynamics of cultural repression and assimilation, and it is something that we must work against. But again: the choice is not always ours to decide (if at all).

The fundamental difference between my Chinese name and “Sean” is that I’m OK with one and not the other. Someone’s name is inviolable, and it’s not up to anyone to tell them to change it or how to pronounce it. The moral of this little story is: always ask someone how to pronounce their name, and earnestly try to pronounce it they way they want, not what’s most convenient for you. If they let you off with a mispronounced syllable or sound, then that’s fine. But respect what they have to say. It’s their name, not yours.

What Should We Be Learning In High School?

For many high school students in the United States (as well as other countries), foreign language education is a topic that has mixed responses when brought up. Many of my classmates from high school reviled it as a waste of their time, saying that “everyone speaks English anyway”. Others enjoyed it, like myself, and valued it highly as an important aspect of my education. In the United States, the prevailing languages taught in high schools are Spanish, French, and more recently, Mandarin Chinese.

The general premise of foreign language education is that it facilitates communication between people who otherwise might not be able to, as well as to improve relations between different countries.  There is a kind of cultural bias in English speaking countries where people from the United States and other English-speaking countries can ask people in other countries whether they speak English before attempting to speak in the native language of that country. It’s a poor habit that many Americans fall into, since our foreign language education is often subpar or non-extensive in its covering of cultural nuances.

At New York University, many of the programs require students to complete a foreign language requirement, which can range from completing only the elementary series to having to complete the entire series from elementary through advanced. Universities often provide a fairly wide variety of languages compared to high schools, but Spanish and French predominate as the biggest programs in many schools. NYU, specifically, offers languages including Italian, Portuguese, Mandarin, Cantonese, Haitian Krèyol, and even Quechua!

Now what I’m going to discuss is what languages we really should be teaching in our high schools, since I believe that our current selection is falling out of practical usage. Spanish is still one of the most useful language since many Hispanic immigrants reside in the United States, and Mandarin Chinese has similar applications in Chinese communities around the country. French is where it gets tricky. Very few people in the United States actually speak French in comparison to Spanish and Chinese, and even if Canada is on the border, the demographics of United States do not make French particularly applicable. Below are the top three languages that I think need to be replace French or otherwise be added to the foreign language curriculum of United States high schools:

Arabic

Arabic, as a lingua franca of the Middle East, is an incredibly useful language due to its applications in refugee and immigrant communities around the world. The Middle Eastern communities will benefit immensely from the acceptance and tolerance for their heritages and beliefs if their language is taught in schools. However, as you may or may not know, Arabic comes in several regional varieties that are not entirely mutually intelligible, including Egyptian, Moroccan, Palestinian, and Saudi Arabian. There is a standardized variety, known as Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), which is based off of the Arabic of the Qur’an, known as Classical Arabic. We cannot possibly accommodate the many varieties of Arabic, so it is probably best to teach MSA in high schools, as is done in many universities.

Only at advanced levels can students consider specializing in a particular variety of Arabic, but each has its own merits. Egyptian Arabic is one of the most widely understood regional varieties, given much of popular Arabic-language media is in Egyptian Arabic, whereas Levantine Arabic has applications in diplomatic relations and translation/interpretation in the Levant, which includes areas such as Israel, Palestine, Jordan, or Syria (Note: these areas do have their regional variations, but Levantine Arabic does cover all of them to an extent).

Hindi-Urdu

While many South Asians do speak English fairly well (if not fluently), Hindi-Urdu is a valuable language to implement in school systems. South Asian communities have a diverse set of languages spoken among them, and Hindi-Urdu does, to an extent, unite them through a common language. Unlike Hispanic and Chinese communities, South Asian communities are not afforded the privilege of having their language being mainstream, which contributes to dynamics of assimilation. Hindi-Urdu is a culturally rich language with a strong tradition of music, poetry, and literature. Part of the barriers to understanding South Asian communities is due to the alienation of their languages, culture, and traditions.

You may think that this is simply to accommodate the South Asian communities in the United States, but the fact is that South Asian Americans exist. Many of us are divided from our heritages due to the lack of ability to connect to it through our languages, and having the language of Bollywood to connect us is a way of strengthening our ties. Yes, we do have our own languages, but we have our own ways (and sometimes not) to connect with those heritages. Hindi-Urdu is one of the few ways that Pakistani and Indian Americans can find something in common in the way of cultural bonds. Bangladeshi and Sri Lankan Americans have their own languages as well, and it is important to recognize that, and in communities with large populations of Bengalis and Sri Lankans, they do find their own ways to promote their languages (as I’ve personally seen in New York City). For the purpose of practicality, I support Hindi-Urdu as a language to be taught in high schools, due to its extensive cultural potential.

Russian

Russian is a somewhat practical language to learn, though this is more true on the East Coast with large populations of Ukrainian and Russian immigrants. Russian, as a diplomatic language, does have some uses as well, considering that it is a lingua franca in many Eastern European countries. Since I’m not as familiar with Russian communities or the scope of the language, I admit there’s not much else I’m able to say.

The over-arching point of this post is to express that certain languages need to be promoted more than others in this changing world. The prestige of French and Spanish is not a valid excuse to neglect the communities of other nations as well as expand diplomatic and cultural relations with them.

 

The Ethnopolitics of Language

On March 25, 2016, I gave a research presentation on “The Ethnopolitics of Language” at New York University’s Global Research Colloquium. My talk concerned the development of nations from ethnic groups as defined by their languages, and how that contributes to notions of transitional democracy. You can watch the video below on YouTube. Video credits go to Susanna Horng, my amazing advisor.

“Language as a Human Right”

I recently wrote an article for NYU’s Journal of Human Rights, which you can read here: http://issuu.com/nyuhumanus/docs/jhr_fall_2015_complete/36. If you’re interested in reading it, the topic concerns the legitimacy of language as a human right. I hope you find it interesting and edifying!

My Chinese Learning Progress!

So, as you may or may not know, I’ve been learning Mandarin Chinese for the last six months. I’m making slow but steady progress, thanks to my Mandarin-speaking friends at NYU! They all speak Taiwanese Mandarin, so I’m getting used to that more than Mainland or Standard Mandarin. I also practice traditional Chinese instead of simplified, since kanji in Japanese are largely in their traditional forms, which will make learning Japanese later on easier for me. For those who don’t know, simplified is exactly what you think it is: simpler versions of certain characters to expedite writing. Traditional is still used in Hong Kong and Taiwan, as well as in calligraphy and writing that is meant to look aesthetically more appealing.

In this post, I’m going to list the characters that I know so far, so that you can use this list if you so desire. I’ve been learning them in sets of 5-8 characters per set, which may or may not consist of related words. My general rule is that I practice a word (not just characters!) enough times to fill out three lines until I feel that I’ve memorized the word. To test myself, before I start a new set on a blank page, I write out the sets of my characters, labeling them by number. Once I finish writing them all out, I then write the pīnyīn as well as the meaning. Another thing I do is write out mini-conversations to help practice using the words in context, and I ask my friends to look over them.

So here are my first eight sets: (First is traditional and then simplified)

Set 1:

時間/时间 – shíjān – time
點(鍾)/点(钟) – … o’clock (ex. 八點(鐘)/点(钟) = 8 o’clock); you don’t have to say 鍾/钟
半 – bàn – half, partly, halfway; there is a similar character 伴 that means “to accompany”
刻 – kè – quarter
分鐘/分钟 – fēnzhōng – minute (again, you don’t have to say 鍾/钟)

Set 2:

剛才/刚才 – gāngcái – (just) now
小時/小间 – xiăoshí – hour (“little time”)
應該/应该 – yīnggāi – should/must/ought
秒 – miăo – second
現在/现在 – xiànzài – now

Set 3:

呢 – ne – additive particle (“What about you?”; That’s the kind of situation where this would be attached to the pronoun)
老師/老师 – lăoshī – teacher
謝謝/谢谢 – xièxie – thank you
沒/没 – mĕi – negative particle (for 有 and 過/过)
有 – yŏu – to have/exist
(要/想) – (yào/xiăng) – to want/intend to (direct/polite); these are different words for the same idea, but not traditional versus simplified

Set 4:

幾/几 – jĭ – how many (can be substituted with 多少 (duōshào); needs to be used with a measure word, like 個/个)
前天 – qiántiān – day before yesterday
作天 – zuótiān – yesterday
上學/上学 – to attend (a school)
走 – zŏu – to walk/general verb of motion (very easy to confuse with 去 (), which means “to go”)
再見/再见 – zàijiàn – goodbye

Set 5:

早上 – zăoshàng –  early morning
上午 – shàngwŭ – late morning
中午 – zhōngwŭ – noon
下午 – xiàwŭ – afternoon
晚上 – wănshàng – evening

Set 6:

去年 – qùnián – last year (“gone year”)
今年 – jīnniān – this year
明年 – míngnián – next year
上個/上个 – shàngge – last…
上次 – shàngcì – last time
這個/这个 – zhège – this
下個/下个 – xiàge – next…

Set 7:

喝 – hē – to drink
吃 – chī – to eat
飯/饭 – fàn – meal/food (attach at front 早, 午, or 晚 to make “breakfast”, “lunch”, or “dinner”)
咖啡 – kāfēi – coffee
茶 – chá – tea

Set 8:

(號/号)/日 – hào/rì – date
星期 – xīngqī – week (add to end number 1-6 for Monday through Saturday; add 天 for Sunday)
月 – yuè – month (add number 1-12 before for January through December)
零 – líng – zero
都 – dōu – all/even
生日 – shēngrì – birthday

I hope you find this post useful for your own Chinese studies, and please don’t forget to share this on Facebook and Tumblr!

Keeping Up With the Times

So, here’s my first post in a really long time! I’ve been very busy with studying at NYU so I haven’t had time to really write on the blog, but now I’ve thought of a topic! Recently, I’ve been watching a Taiwanese drama to improve my passive understanding of Chinese and practicing parsing spoken Chinese. (I’m using a Taiwanese drama because most of my Mandarin-speaking friends at NYU speak Taiwanese Mandarin, which does have some differences from China’s variety.) This drama, the name of which is PS男 (PS Man), is from 2009 and while very helpful in practicing listening to Chinese, has aged quite a bit. They still use the first iPhones, for one! But more importantly, this brings to mind something else: changes in language. It can be as recent as four or five years ago, and a language can start exhibiting changes in the most minute details, whether it be new slang or new standards imposed by the government.

These changes require the language learner to be ever vigilant. But how, you may ask, can a novice in a language possibly recognize such things?  What you can do, is try to only use contemporary, or at least the most recent, materials available on the language. This can mean a textbook written this year or an ongoing TV show that airs every week. However, you should be careful about TV shows; some TV shows like Downton Abbey are written in an archaic or old-fashioned register of English that no one actually uses. But that doesn’t mean these types of shows aren’t helpful. At higher levels of language learning, such as a point at which one might be going to study abroad, it is important to be aware of certain cultural nuances that accompany a language’s archaic style. There may be jokes or puns that people may make in real life that are drawn from such sources, and they can help to understand the language and the culture on a deeper level.

Another important aspect of language learning as it pertains to contemporary materials is, of course, the language itself. What do people say? And how are they saying it? This is where old-time-y and historical shows fail the language learner, however fascinating they may be. You need to watch shows and movies, listen to music, and read books that someone your age who speaks your target language natively would be exposed to. This is fundamental to understanding how culture works in a modern society constantly in flux, especially in societies where ancient social structures have persisted for centuries and how that fits into everyday life. It’s important to understand the place of women in Indian society when learning Hindi, for example. You will not fully understand the content of a movie like Mardaani if you do not. It is a movie that deals with prostitution rings in India and how people deal with them, particularly the police. This is highly relevant to the average Indian that speaks Hindi, as it speaks to a prevalent issue in their society. Bollywood has seen an increase in socially conscious films that address certain issues in Indian society and that is something that directly affects the media produced by a Hindi speaking population. As such, a language learner, especially one who is not of an ethnicity or nationality that speaks that language, should be keenly aware of the social dynamics and politics of the society that uses their target language.

You may think you don’t need to understand these things in your target language, but believe me, it helps a lot when coming to understand a language. Think of a language as person who’s going to be your roommate for a while; you need to get used to them. Don’t block out the eccentricities and weirdness, but instead, learn from it. This is particularly relevant to me, a first-year university student, living with two roommates in a dorm! Getting along with your language (or a roommate for that matter) is critical to making progress and understanding the culture and society in which that language is predominant.

I hope you enjoyed this piece after a long period of no posts! Please don’t forget to share this post on whatever platform you use social media!